Posts by: Economic Development HQ.com

Texas State Grants Add to RESTORE Act Funding For University Consortiums

Texas Governor Rick Perry announced $4 million in state funding to support the creation of consortiums between Texas universities to study offshore energy development, including research and technology advancements that improve the sustainable and safe development of energy resources in the Gulf of Mexico.

This $4 million in state grants is being provided from funds given to Texas by BP after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and adds to the federal RESTORE Act funding already announced to create the two centers of excellence for housing the two consortiums.

RESTORE Act funding graph

RESTORE Act funding graph (photo – treasury.gov)

Gov. Perry said in a release announcing the funding that it will support research at Texas universities “that will look at both the lessons of the past and challenges of the future to make energy exploration in our nation more effective.”

One of the requirements of the RESTORE Act is that the five Gulf States affected by the oil spill should establish these centers of excellence to conduct research on the Gulf Coast region.

Some $4.1 million in federal funding will be made available for these centers of excellence from the Gulf Coast Restoration Trust Fund, administered by the U.S. Treasury and funded by the administrative and civil penalties paid by those responsible for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

As required for federal funding opportunities, the two Texas consortiums were selected through a competitive process based on the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality’s regulations for awarding grants.

TCEQ Commissioner Toby Baker represents the State of Texas on the RESTORE Council, and is charged with managing the implementation of the RESTORE Act in Texas.

Commissioner Baker said in a TCEQ release that he is pleased that the first resources allocated from the RESTORE Trust Fund will enrich the Texas economy through research and development, while also highlighting the state’s commitment to the health of the coastlines.

One of the centers of excellence will be led by the University of Houston, and its members include the NASA Johnson Space Center, Rice University, Houston Community College, Lone Star Community College and Texas Southern University.

The second one will be led by Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi, and its members include Texas A&M University – College Station, Texas A& M University – Galveston, the University of Texas Medical Branch–Galveston, the University of Texas at Brownsville, Texas State University, and the University of Houston Law Center.

The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association is a member of this second consortium as well, and so are the Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, and the Center for Translational Environmental Health Research.

This consortium will look at sustainable offshore energy development through advances in research and technology, and study restoration and protection of the coast and deltas. They’ll also be doing research and monitoring of the Gulf Coast’s coastal fisheries and wildlife ecosystems, and monitoring and mapping the gulf.

The scope of their activities also covers Texas economic development and sustainable and resilient growth in the region. The role of these centers could expand further as more financial resources are devoted to the RESTORE Trust Fund.

NY Independent Colleges and Universities Economic Impact Study – $74.3B and 394,400 Jobs

An economic impact study of New York’s independent colleges and universities shows that these private and non-profit institutions contribute more than $74 billion to the state’s economy.

CICU economic impact study

CICU economic impact study

The study was conducted by the Center for Governmental Research (CGR) for the Commission on Independent Colleges and Universities.

CICU is a statewide association that represents the public policy interests of the chief executives of more than 100 independent campuses in New York State.

The study shows that these independent colleges and universities in New York directly employ 190,500 people who pay $1.9 billion in taxes. After factoring in the multiplier effects, the tally adds up to 394,400 direct, indirect and induced jobs with a total payroll of $26.5 billion. Tech spinoffs originating from these institutions account for another 12,200 jobs.

The latest available data used in the study, which is for 2013, also shows that the contribution of these institutions to the state’s economy has climbed to $74.3 billion – an increase of $11.1 billion compared to the previous bi-annual CICU study that looked at 2011 data.

The latest figures show that direct institutional spending now exceeds $56 billion, while academic medical center spending adds up to more than $13.2 billion. Student and visitor spending account for another $4.5 billion.

The report further provides a breakup of the figures for each of the ten regions covered by the ten New York State Regional Economic Development Councils.

New York City accounts for a major part ($45.9 billion) of the economic activity of independent colleges and universities in the state. The Finger Lakes region is next with $5.6 billion, followed by Southern Tier ($5 billion), Mid-Hudson ($4.5 billion), Capital Region ($4.2 billion), Long Island ($3.4 billion), Central New York ($3 billion), Western New York ($1.4 billion), North Country ($679.9 million), and Mohawk Valley ($639.7 million).

CICU President Laura L. Anglin said in a release announcing the economic impact study results that the Independent Sector, playing the role of anchor tenants with communities around the state, educates hundreds of thousands of students while also providing jobs and significant fiscal impact for the communities where they are located.

Enrollment at independent colleges and universities in New York has risen to nearly 492,000, as per the latest available data. The Independent Sector of higher education in the state now produces 51 percent of the bachelor’s degrees awarded, along with 71 percent of the master’s degrees and 80 percent of doctorates and professional degrees.

CGR Chief Research Officer Kent Gardner, who led the study, said in the release that the continued major contribution of New York’s Independent Sector to the state economy is particularly impressive in the current hyper-competitive higher education economy.

Gardner added that these schools have maintained enrollment in the face of declining numbers of high school grads, and boosted research spending by 17 percent despite reductions in federal research investments.

Full CICU economic impact study report (pdf)

Greater Seattle’s Regional Economic Development Plan to Attract FDI and Grow Exports

The Trade Development Alliance of Greater Seattle and the Economic Development Council of Seattle and King County have unveiled an ambitious regional economic development plan to attract foreign investment and grow exports over the next five years.

Greater Seattle Region Global Trade and Investment Plan

Photo – seattletradealliance.com

The Greater Seattle Region Global Trade and Investment Plan is the result of a public-private partnership effort in which the TDA, Seattle-King County EDC and others partnered with multiple state and federal agencies.

The U.S. Department of Commerce and the Washington State Department of Commerce were involved, as were the Puget Sound Regional Council, and the economic development councils of Kitsap, Pierce and Snohomish Counties. Not to mention a host of local governments, trade associations and educational institutions.

The plan focuses on strategies to increase FDI inflows into Washington State’s advanced industries including aerospace manufacturing, clean tech, IT and life sciences. It is designed to increase by 25 percent the number of foreign-owned firms that choose to locate their operations in the region and create greater employment opportunities.

A major focus of the plan is on long-term relationships with partners in China in order to facilitate exports and foreign investment opportunities for regional companies. To this end, the plan calls for the creation of a new organization called ChinaSeattle.

This is being done by the Washington State China Relations Council, which is working with the TDA, Washington State Department of Commerce, City of Seattle and others.

Other focus areas include increased regional economic collaboration, helping small- and medium-sized enterprises access new capital and export markets, and development of a potential investor pipeline – students and tourists.

This plan is part of the work done by the Greater Seattle region as a participant in the Global Cities Initiative, a joint project of the Brookings Institution and JPMorgan Chase. The Seattle MSA was one of the first six metropolitan areas picked to participate in the pilot program to develop and implement regional strategies for growing exports and securing FDI.

With the development phase of the plan now complete, JPMorgan Chase announced a new grant of $150,000 to support the region’s implementation of the plan and its participation in a new round of export planning. Among other things, this new funding will be used for organizing investment and export workshops, and for the creation of a database of investment opportunities.

Suzanne Dale Estey, president and CEO of the Economic Development Council of Seattle and King County, said in a release that “The Greater Seattle Region Global Trade & Investment Plan demonstrates the unified response our region is taking to international competition for jobs and investment.”

Trade Development Alliance of Greater Seattle President Sam Kaplan said that the TDA is proud to be an active partner in the creation and implementation of this plan.

Stefan M. Selig, Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade, U.S. Department of Commerce, said in the release that expanding trade and attracting more foreign direct investment are sound economic strategies that bring good-paying jobs to the region.

Selig added that this plan, with its emphasis on collaboration, global investment and innovation opportunities, is a true game-changer for the Greater Seattle region.

Here’s the full (pdf) Greater Seattle Region Global Trade & Investment Plan.

RI Lawmaker Reintroduces Rhode Island New Qualified Jobs Incentive Act

Rhode Island State Representative K. Joseph Shekarchi (Dist. 23, Warwick) is taking one more shot at getting a hiring incentive bill passed by the RI General Assembly.

RI State Rep. Shekarchi

RI State Rep. Shekarchi (photo – rilin.state.ri.us)

The Rhode Island New Qualified Jobs Incentive Act of 2015 (H. 5116) is the third attempt to get this measure passed, but its prospects look much brighter this year.

A few days after being introduced, the bipartisan legislation has already attracted more than 40 co-sponsors, and has been referred to the RI House Committee on Finance.

The bill, if signed into law, will make new tax incentives available to companies that hire full-time employees in Rhode Island who work at least 30 hours per week and receive a salary that is at least 250 percent of the prevailing hourly minimum wage in the state.

The bill makes large companies eligible for a .25 percent tax incentive off their net income tax rate for every 50 new hires. Smaller businesses would get the .25 percent incentive off their personal income tax for every 10 new hires.

The rate reduction would be limited to a maximum of six percentage points for the applicable income tax rate, and no more than three percentage points for the applicable personal income tax rate.

Representative Shekarchi, the chairman of the RI House Committee on Labor, said in a release announcing the bill’s introduction that an important aspect of the bill is that it ties incentives to qualified jobs. He noted that it will help ensure that businesses in the state receive incentives not just for the creation of a lot of minimum-wage positions, but for good-paying, sustainable jobs.

The bill also requires companies receiving these state tax incentives to provide annual employment reports to the Division of Taxation, which in turn would be required to provide annual reports to the General Assembly and publish the data on their website.

Previous versions of the bill didn’t get through the RI Legislature, partly out of concern over the reduced tax revenue collection. Rep. Shekarchi said in the release that tax incentives such as those proposed in this legislation can obviously mean a reduction in taxes collected by the state.

However, Rep. Shekarchi framed the bill as providing a boost for Rhode Island economic development, adding that the new job creation would lead to these employees paying income tax, buying houses, spending money at Rhode Island establishments and contributing to charities.

He said that in keeping with the RI General Assembly’s initiatives over the past two years, and the announced intent of legislative leadership and the state’s new governor to make job creation a prime focus this year, they need to consider creative and bold initiatives to bring new firms to Rhode Island and encourage and nurture the businesses already in the state.

Iowa Announces Economic Development Incentives for Projects Generating $86M Investments

At its latest meeting, the Iowa Economic Development Authority Board approved incentives for four projects creating 96 jobs and generating $86 million in new capital investments for the state.

Barilla pasta

Barilla pasta (photo – Fudgella/flickr)

One of the companies awarded tax benefits is Italian pasta company Barilla Group’s U.S. subsidiary.

The company, founded in Parma in 1877 and still a family-owned private business, has 30 production facilities all over the world, and exports its food products to more than 100 countries.

Barilla is investing $26.5 million at their production facility in Ames, IA to add two new production lines for producing gluten-free pasta, along with storage space and required packaging and palletizing equipment.

The IEDA Board has awarded Barilla more than $765,000 in tax incentives through the High Quality Jobs program (HQJP) for this expansion, which is expected to create 23 new jobs. At least two of the new jobs being created at the Barilla facility in Ames must offer a qualifying wage of $23.21 per hour.

Another company awarded HQJP tax benefits was Cambrex Charles City, Inc., a subsidiary of Cambrex Corporation (NYSE:CBM) of East Rutherford, NJ. The company makes APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients) and advanced intermediates for branded as well as generic pharmaceuticals.

To accommodate rapid growth, Cambrex is proposing an expansion of its campus in Charles City, IA to add 45,000 square feet of warehousing space, along with QC labs and improvements that include internal roads and a second entrance.

The IEDA Board awarded Cambrex $1.54 million in HQJP tax benefits, which include research tax credits as well as sales tax refunds. The expansion will result in the creation of at least 32 jobs at a qualifying wage of $14.93 per hour.

A third project awarded HQJP tax benefits is an expansion by St. Louis, MO-based scrap metal recycling company Alter Trading Corporation in Davenport, IA. The company is investing $5.9 million to add a new facility adjacent to the existing one in Davenport, and expects to create 13 new jobs.

The IEDA Board awarded Alter Trading Corp $160,225 in tax benefits. At least four of the new jobs the company is creating will have a qualifying wage of $17.47 per hour.

The fourth project receiving state incentives is an expansion by Federal-Mogul Ignition, an automotive component manufacturer which has a production facility in Burlington, IA that makes spark plugs. The company is investing $925,000 at this facility to install packaging equipment and add capacity for integrating product packaging.

Federal-Mogul Ignition has been awarded $100,000 in direct assistance for this expansion that will create 28 new jobs. At least 11 of the new jobs will have a qualifying wage of $14.73 per hour.

The IEDA Board also approved innovation funding for three startups. Des Moines, IA-based Ruster Sports is getting a $25,000 grant from the Proof of Commercial Relevance (POCR) Fund for the development of an advanced type of bicycle inner tube.

Coralville, IA-based NaturemiRI was likewise awarded a $25,000 POCR Fund grant for technology development, and Clinton, IA-based NuMake was awarded a $95,000 loan via the Demonstration Fund for market entry and planning activities for its proposed biobutanol refinery.

Iowa Economic Development Authority Director Debi Durham said in a release announcing these state incentive awards that the IEDA remains committed to increasing and improving opportunities for Iowans, and added that these projects from both large and small companies demonstrate that they are succeeding.

California Awards Economic Development Tax Credits for Projects Creating 4900 Jobs

The Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz) announced that 56 companies have been approved to receive California economic development tax incentives for expansion and job creation projects.

BYD electric bus

BYD electric bus (photo – MTAPhotos/flickr)

This latest round of California Competes tax credit awards is helping create a combined total of 4,900 jobs and generating $900 million in investment.

The BYD Motors, Inc. electric bus manufacturing project is the largest one in the lot in terms of both the number of jobs being created as well as the size of the tax credit award.

BYD is investing $51 million and creating 590 jobs at their California locations in Lancaster and Los Angeles, and has been approved to receive a CA Competes Tax Credit allocation of $3 million.

BYD Motors Inc., headquartered in Los Angeles, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Shenzhen, China-based BYD Company Ltd. In 2013, BYD received a contract from the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority to manufacture and deliver up to 25 new electric buses as a pilot project.

The BYD-Metro contract includes a stipulation that the company has to create a local jobs program. BYD is fulfilling the terms of this contract by producing the electric buses at their new manufacturing plant in Lancaster, CA. This is the company’s first manufacturing facility in the United States.

Late last year, BYD took local officials on a tour in their 60-foot articulated electric bus designed and built at the Lancaster factory. The zero-emission bus can carry 120 passengers and go 170 miles on a single charge.

They’re now in the process of delivering the first five of the 40-foot, 100 percent battery electric transit buses ordered by Los Angeles Metro. Each electric bus eliminates emissions equivalent to 33 cars every day, and will provide annual fuel and maintenance savings of $35,000.

Arkay Acquisition, LLC, another heavy-duty transit bus manufacturer, has been approved to receive a tax credit award of $1.8 million. The Livermore, CA-based company will increase its workforce by 105 and invest more than $100.4 million to establish a new facility and purchase manufacturing equipment.

Another big project approved to receive a $2.7 million tax credit award was Niagara Bottling’s bottled water manufacturing plant in Rialto, CA. The company is investing $193,685,882 and will add 409 net new jobs.

Network security company Oasis Technology, Inc. was approved to receive a $2 million tax credit award for an expansion of their operations in Camarillo, CA. The company has committed to a net increase of 357 full-time jobs and is investing $1 million to purchase research and development equipment.

Here’s the full list of 56 projects approved to receive the California Competes tax credit awards.

Country Music Star Vince Gill Joins America’s Best Communities Competition

Country music star Vince Gill took the stage once again at the Country Music Hall of Fame in Nashville, TN, but this time it was to announce that he was joining the America’s Best Communities partnership for revitalizing small towns and cities across the country.

America’s Best Communities

America’s Best Communities (photo – americasbestcommunities.com)

America’s Best Communities was launched in Sept 2014 as a $10 million competition to reward and support communities for creating plans for economic development and improved quality of life.

Frontier Communications, DISH and CoBank are the major sponsors of the three-year, multi-stage rural economic development competition. It is open to municipalities with populations of between 9,500 and 80,000 covered under the 27 states served by Frontier Communications.

As a start, the competition is providing $4 million in seed funding that will aid efforts undertaken by selected communities to put together long-term economic development plans.

The field will start with 50 quarter finalists picked out of all the proposals that are being submitted. These 50 communities will receive $35,000 each, and must come up with a matching $15,000 contribution. This funding will help the quarter finalists further refine their vision and develop plans to set it in motion.

Fifteen semi-finalists will be picked out of the 50 quarter-finalists to attend the America’s Best Communities summit in the spring of 2016, when they will get a chance to present their proposals.

Eight selected finalists will then receive $100,000 each to get started on implementing their plan. The contest will end in 2017 with three communities that have the most innovative and effective plans being awarded a total of $6 million.

The first-prize winner will get $3 million, the runner up $2 million and the third place winner will get $1 million.

Vince Gill said on-stage to the crowd that “This is where I live and I want to make it better, I want to be part of a team focused on supporting the backbone of America.”

Maggie Wilderotter, chairman and CEO of Frontier Communications, said in a statement that they believe their investments in these locations will have a multiplier effect as communities embrace opportunities for revitalization.

CoBank CEO Robert B. Engel said they look forward to seeing the proposals generated by the ABC competition, and the tangible benefits it will deliver to all communities who decide to participate.

DISH Network President and CEO Joseph P. Clayton said their expectation is that America’s Best Communities will help provide the right motivation, resources and rewards to support those working to make their communities the best they can be.

The contest has already drawn more than 200 registrations. All entrants in the competition will be able to access the economic development plans and ideas of the other participants, and can use it in their own future plans.

Find out more about the America’s Best Communities competition at americasbestcommunities.com.

Upstate New York Gets $1.5 Billion Economic Revitalization Competition

As part of his 2015 Opportunity Agenda, Governor Andrew M. Cuomo unveiled a $1.5 billion Upstate New York Economic Revitalization Competition.

The Upstate competition will attempt to replicate the success of the Buffalo Billion initiative in supporting Western New York economic development projects.

Three years after the Buffalo Billion initiative was launched, Western New York’s economy has bounced back with $11.3 billion in regional private investment. A total of 812 firms have moved into the area and created 3,772 jobs. Total regional wages have increased by four percent.

The new competition will use the same model to drive community revitalization, population sustainability and job growth across Upstate New York.

The competition and its process for awarding funding will be overseen by a five-member Strategic Plan Review Committee. It will combine the structure of the NY Regional Economic Development Councils with elements of the Buffalo Billion initiative.

Seven regions will be competing for one of three $500 million revitalization funds. The participating regions are the Capital Region, Central New York, Finger Lakes, Mid-Hudson, Mohawk Valley, North Country, and the Southern Tier.

A range of projects will be eligible to seek funding from these three revitalization funds. Projects with potential for region-wide impact will get priority, and should focus on community revitalization, infrastructure, workforce development, tourism, and improving quality of life.

The funding will primarily be awarded as grants. Where appropriate, existing loan programs and tax credits may replace certain awards or supplement grant awards.

Deputy Erie County Executive Richard Tobe will lead the competition as Director of Upstate Revitalization. Tobe has previously served as Commissioner of the Buffalo Economic Development Department’s Permit and Inspection Services, and also as the Community Foundation for Greater Buffalo’s Program Vice President.

The seven participating regions will now begin engaging parties interested in the competition, and submit their plans by July. Winners will be announced in the fall.

The Upstate New York Economic Revitalization Competition was the second part of the Governor’s 2015 Opportunity Agenda. The first part included the announcement of a $1.66 billion property tax credit program that will provide tax relief to homeowners and renters.

The Real Property Tax Credit will provide relief to households whose property tax burden exceeds six percent of their income. When fully phased in, it will provide an average tax credit of $950 to more than 1.3 million State taxpayers.

Atlanta Secures NCR Corp Headquarters With 3600 Jobs

NCR Corporation (NYSE:NCR) announced plans to build a new world headquarters campus in midtown Atlanta.

NCR office in Duluth, GA

NCR office in Duluth, GA (photo – Mike Gonzalez/wikimedia)

The $260 million investment by the company to establish the new campus at Centergy North at Technology Square on Spring Street will help NCR consolidate 3,600 jobs that are now spread across a number of disparate facilities.

NCR has thousands of employees in Georgia located in facilities in Duluth, Alpharetta and Peachtree City. The Fortune 500 company has more than 30,000 employees worldwide and does business in over 180 countries.

Apart from the unified and contemporary work environments, the new headquarters location also provides improved access to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. This makes it easier for the company’s financial services, retail and hospitality customers to fly into Atlanta from all over the world to see NCR’s technology solutions in-person.

NCR Chairman and CEO Bill Nuti said in the release that creating a state-of-the-art campus in midtown Atlanta near Georgia Tech marks an important step in the company’s reinvention as an exciting and important global technology company.

NCR, founded in 1884 in Dayton, OH has traditionally been a maker of cash registers and ATMs, but the company is now reinventing itself as a global tech company providing both software and hardware solutions for consumer transactions.

The company’s headquarters has been in the Atlanta metro area since 2009 when it announced a relocation from Dayton to Duluth, GA.

NCR said in a release that it plans to establish a second campus in the northern suburbs so that they can attract talent from the entire Atlanta metro area. The location of this second campus is yet to be finalized, but it is expected to be ready at the same time in late 2017 or early 2018 when the midtown Atlanta campus is ready.

Governor Nathan Deal said in the release that NCR chose Georgia a few years ago, and they are thrilled that this global leader will now expand its presence in the state. The Governor added that Georgia has proven to be a top choice for leading companies to locate their headquarters.

When NCR moved from Dayton to Duluth, the company received nearly $60 million in incentives from Georgia. For this latest relocation, the company could get more than $3 million in Atlanta economic development incentives. To this end, the City Council has approved a resolution authorizing Invest Atlanta to make an Economic Opportunity Grant to “:Project Towers.”

Mayor Reed said in the release that technology is a critical sector for the local economy and they are honored to have NCR locate its global headquarters in Atlanta.

Virginia Awards Grants For Five Regional Economic Development Projects

Virginia Governor Terry McAuliffe announced $200,000 in grant funding for five collaborative regional economic development partnership projects.

Building Collaborative Communities

Building Collaborative Communities (photo – dhcd.virginia.gov)

The grants are being provided through a Virginia economic development funding program called Building Collaborative Communities.

BCC funding is meant to promote regional economic collaboration in economically distressed areas in Virginia to stimulate economic development and job creation while providing a significant return on state investment.

One of these projects is the George Washington Carver Agriculture Center, for which the Rappahannock-Rapidan Regional Commission was awarded a $63,000 BCC grant.

First Lady Dorothy McAuliffe, who announced the grant in Rapidan, VA, said in a release that the Piedmont area recognizes the importance of regional food systems to healthy and economically vibrant communities, and through the BCC grant, the Regional Commission will further advance and support regional agri-business initiatives.

The other four Virginia regional economic development partnership projects that received funding are as follows:

My Southwest Virginia Opportunity – This project, which covers 12 counties and there cities, was awarded a $50,000 BCC grant. The My Southwest Virginia Opportunity Steering Committee was established to mobilize existing and emerging economic development efforts for creating a thriving entrepreneurial community in Southwest Virginia.

Middle Peninsula Regional Economic Development – The Middle Peninsula Planning District Commission, which covers six counties and three towns, has been awarded a $19,275 BCC grant for this project.

Region 2000 Regional Food Distribution Planning – The Region 2000 Local Government Council, which covers four counties, six towns and the city of Lynchburg, was awarded $19,275 as a BCC grant.

Virginia’s Growth Alliance Regional Economic Development Blueprint – Virginia’s Growth Alliance, comprised of the Counties of Amelia, Buckingham, Cumberland and Prince Edward, was awarded a $48,450 BCC grant for this project.

Gov. McAuliffe said in the release that “Regional collaboration is critical as we work to build a new Virginia economy, and we continue to see the impact it has in bringing businesses and jobs to communities throughout the Commonwealth.”

Speaking of which, the Governor also recently released The New Virginia Economy report created by a steering committee chaired by Virginia Secretary of Commerce and Trade Maurice Jones. Through an executive order (EO 26), the steering committee was charged with guiding the production of the Governor’s four-year economic development strategic plan.

The committee held nine regional input sessions across the Commonwealth last year to seek feedback regarding future economic development directions from relevant state agencies, local and regional economic development organizations, chambers of commerce, business leaders and others.

They put the ideas gained from these listening tours as recommendations in the report that now serves as a roadmap for putting these approved recommendations into practice and building the foundations of the New Virginia Economy.

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