Economic Development

Austin Music Census to Help Identify Economic Development Opportunities

The ATX Music and Entertainment Office, a division of the City of Austin Economic Development Department, has released the Austin Music Census report.

Austin Music Census report

Austin Music Census report (photo –

The Austin Music Census was commissioned last year by Don Pitts, Manager of ATX Music, and conducted by the Titan Music Group.

The idea behind it is to improve ATX Music’s understanding of these music industry innovators and their needs, in terms of future growth of jobs, salaries, and revenues.

The data is based on 3,968 usable survey respondents, eight focus groups and 20 interviews. In other words, this census represents the collective thoughts and opinions of nearly 4,000 Austin musicians and music industry operators such as live music venues, music industry entrepreneurs and their employees.

This is the first-ever survey of this kind and scope in Austin, so it will serve the important purpose of being able to benchmark a comprehensive inventory of Austin’s music industry. Secondly, an analysis of the Austin Music Census data will help assess key needs and gaps, and produce proposals to assist policy makers in identifying economic development opportunities.

The report shows that the income of musicians in Austin is significantly below the average income in the Austin MSA, while music industry employees’ income is slightly below average. Venue owner and manager income is slightly above the average.

Out of the 1,883 musicians in the survey, a full 68.4 percent (or 1,288 people) earned less than $10,000 in annual music industry-related income for 2013.

Even if you factor in their non-music industry income (56 percent say they have other full or part-time jobs in industries unrelated to music), nearly a third of musicians in the survey are living on $15,000 or less per year in pre-tax income.

One of the key contributing factors to the low income of local musicians is the growth of Austin as a more populated market that can support large music events and touring bands. As consumers shift to these larger events, local musicians are getting squeezed out of the Austin area.

The report authors says that “there is significant evidence suggesting that musicians may already be moving away from Austin or are actively considering moving in the short term.”

Survey respondents were also asked about the “needs and gaps” that were inhibiting the growth of their careers and earning potential. All but one of the questions in the “Living and Affordability” category was ranked as having an “Extreme or Strong Impact” by 65 percent of musicians. Within this category, stagnating pay got the highest ranking, with 87.3 percent of respondents ranking it as top contributing factor in this category.

The report recommends solutions such as dedicated affordable housing for artists, citing such programs and policies in New York City, Minneapolis and Nashville.

To stimulate revenue creation, the recommendations include an “Austin Arts Loyalty Program” that would encourage and incentivize use of Austin music by other Austin-based entertainment companies in films, television, games, commercials, advertising, etc.

One of the recommendations to attract new music industry revenue and projects is to explore ideas that could make use of other divisions within the Austin Economic Development Department.

For example, they suggest working with the Global Business Recruitment and Expansion Division to generate more exports by identifying and executing on opportunities for either live or recorded Austin music. Another recommendation is to form export and trade partnerships with other music cities.

The report has similar comprehensive data and recommendations for the music industry and for music venues and nightlife establishments. Read the full Austin Music Census report (pdf).

U.S. Economic Development Administration Grant for Incubator at Artspace Loveland in Colorado

The U.S. Economic Development Administration has awarded an $862,557 grant for restoring the historic Feed & Grain Building in the City of Loveland, CO that will used as a creative arts business incubator.

Artspace Loveland

Artspace Loveland (photo –

The EDA grant for the Artspace Loveland Project will create 27 jobs, retain 22 jobs, and help the community’s efforts at recovery and rebuilding in the wake of severe flooding a couple of years ago that killed eight people and caused $2 billion in damage.

Minneapolis, MN-based Artspace is a non-profit that aims to build better communities through the arts, supported by a network of over 35 arts facilities across 13 states.

The Artspace Loveland project builds upon Loveland’s cultural heritage, transforming an entire neglected downtown city block into a community asset in which the arts is a common thread combining programs such as affordable housing and creative entrepreneurialism.

One of these projects is the Incubator at Artspace Loveland that will serve Loveland and the Larimer County region. It will aid recovery efforts by helping grow the region’s creative economy as part of a strategy for economic diversification, resiliency and growth.

U.S. Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Economic Development Jay Williams said in a release announcing the grant that EDA is committed to supporting regionally focused and regionally driven economic development projects, adding that this grant will help the community of Loveland strengthen the regional economy by cultivating businesses and jobs in the creative arts.

Artspace will operate the Incubator with support from the Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade (OEDIT) and the City of Loveland Economic Development Department. Several businesses and organizations have already expressed their interest in being tenants in the building and creating new jobs for the region.

Apart from the Incubator, the phased rehabilitation of the historic Feed & Grain Building also includes plans for art galleries, artist studios, office space for art organizations, and other community arts uses.

The Feed & Grain Building is one part of the project, which also includes construction of 30 units of affordable living and working space for eligible artists. A third component of the $9.2 million Artspace Loveland project is the construction of an outdoor plaza and community gathering space that will connect the incubator and affordable artist housing together.

The Artspace Loveland project has also previously been designated as an Enterprise Zone contribution project by the Colorado Economic Development Commission. This designation allows individuals and organizations making cash donations to Artspace Loveland to claim a 25 percent tax credit on their state income taxes in Colorado.

Los Angeles Directors, Film Tax Credit Make California Top Production Location For Feature Films

Non-profit organization Film L.A. Inc. has released its latest Feature Film Production Report that looks into where movies are filmed, why they are filmed in these locations, and how much production spending and job creation takes place in these locations.

Film L.A. feature film study

Film L.A. feature film study (photo –

The report includes data about 106 feature films filmed last year whose primary production locations spanned across 30 U.S. states and foreign countries.

Together, they represent $6.3 billion in direct production spending and tens of thousands of high-wage jobs in different professions.

California reclaims first place in the report this year, bagging 22 of these films to dethrone last year’s top location of Louisiana, which ended up in sixth place with five films. New York claimed second place with 13 feature film productions, with the U.K. and Canada tied for third place with 12 films each.

The U.S. as a whole got 69 (or 64 percent) of the productions. California had a very good year, increasing its count of productions from 15 to 22, but it was New York that showed a big improvement from just four films in 2013 to 13 last year.

California’s number one place can be attributed at least in part to the California Film & Television Tax Credit. The credit was capped at $100 million last year, but is now at $330 million, with 35 percent dedicated solely for feature films. Also, features with budgets exceeeding $75 million that were previously ineligible to apply for the tax credit can now do so.

Eight feature films which received approvals for the film tax credit in 2014 racked up production spending totaling $241 million in California. These productions had 410 cast members and 1,313 crew in total, along with 14,863 extras.

Several other films not supported by the tax credit still ended up choosing Los Angeles because their directors called the shots about the location. This includes Inherent Vice, a $20 million film set in LA and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson, who it seems insisted that the film be shot in his home state of California.

The same happened with the $50 million Gone Girl directed by David Fincher and mostly filmed in Los Angeles. Christopher Nolan, who has a long track record of films made wholly or substantially in California, kept much of the $165 million budget of Interstellar in and around Los Angeles.

The L.A. Inc. report makes a more detailed distinction about the importance of actual production spending as opposed to just a count of the number of productions.

The report notes that as per the Los Angeles Economic Development Corporation, 92 percent of all production spending on live-action production in California is wholly sourced from within the state.

Another contributing factor that favors California is that films made in the state tend to do much better at the Academy Awards. In the last ten years, California has been home to 40 percent of the nominated films, and had the most Best Picture wins too.

To take this one step further, incentivized projects approved for the California Film &Television Tax Credit have a stellar record as well. Ever since the program was put in place in 2009-10, these incentivized projects have included a Best Picture nominee or winner every single year.

Read the full L.A. Inc. Feature Film Production Report.

Phoenix Launches Economic Development Website and Export Plan

The City of Phoenix Community and Economic Development Department has officially unveiled its new website, and the Greater Phoenix Economic Alliance chose the exact same time to release their long-awaited export plan for the region.

Greater Phoenix export plan

Greater Phoenix export plan (photo –

Phoenix Economic Development Director Christine Mackay said in a release that updating the website was essential to incorporate their new ‘Phoenix is Hot’ brand.

Mackay added that they wanted to tell their story in a manner that engages corporate executives, brokers, site selectors, business owners, employers and employees to generate interest in the Phoenix economy.

The website was developed in-house at no cost by city staff. It provides useful site selection information such as demographic data, workforce development programs and facts and statistics about Phoenix. An industry tab shows office and industrial real estate, major employers, retail and other such information.

A whole section is about Downtown Phoenix, which has received a $4.7 billion transformation in the last decade. Government contractors will find CED solitications, and there’s a news & events section that provides the latest updates, along with links to CED’s social media pages.

You can see the new Phoenix economic development website at It’s still new, but it seems web traffic to the site has already increased by 1,400 views per month since its launch.

The launch of the website coincided with the release of a new export plan for Greater Phoenix, announced by regional economic development organization Greater Phoenix Economic Development Council.

The Metro Phoenix Export Plan provides a comprehensive assessment of Greater Phoenix’s current export climate. It also sets market-based goals for increasing exports, and lays out an implementation plan to support local businesses increase their exports.

The report shows that the service sector is leading the way in terms of export growth in Greater Phoenix, and aerospace accounts for a significant part of the economy and exports from the Greater Phoenix region.

The Metro Phoenix Export Plan and the Metro Phoenix Export Alliance (MPEXA) are a part of the region’s Velocity Program, aimed at encouraging growth in advanced industries. The export plan also represents the culmination of a year-long process under the Global Cities Initiative, a joint initiative of the Brookings Institution and JPMorgan Chase.

Nearly 25 economic developers, executives and federal agency officials participated and assisted Phoenix Mayor Greg Stanton in the effort to develop the plan, and they will continue to be a part of the implementation process. The MPEXA will oversee the plan, and provide a single point of contact and extensive resources for local SMEs looking for export-related assistance and guidance.

Los Angeles County Strategic Economic Development Plan Progress Report

The Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation has published a progress report that summarizes the county’s achievements in terms of the goals of the 2010-2014 LA County Strategic Plan for Economic Development.

LA County economic development plan progress report

LA County economic development plan progress report (photo –

This Los Angeles economic development plan was first initiated during the depths of the Great Recession, when the region was facing a flood of foreclosures, empty storefronts, high unemployment and huge budget deficits.

The plan had five core goals, twelve broad objectives and 52 specific strategies to implement to kick start the LA County economy and make it more diverse, sustainable and vibrant.

The five core goals were to prepare an educated workforce; create a business friendly environment; enhance the quality of life; implement smart land use; and build 21st century infrastructure.

The progress report that has just been released looks at how LA County fared in trying to achieve and implement each of these goals.

The report shows that gross product has increased from $601 billion to $640 billion. Non-farm employment increased from 3.9 million in 2010 to 4.2 million in 2014, and the unemployment rate dropped from 12.5 percent to 8.2 percent.

During this period, the state and local governments made unprecedented efforts in terms of enacting tax credits and other incentives designed to retain existing businesses and attract new jobs in specific industries such as film and television production, aerospace and defense, clean technologies, manufacturing, biotech, R&D, etc.

Furthermore, the report also shows great progress in terms of local governments acknowledging the importance of having a distinct economic development element within their general plans. From 2010 to 2014, the number of cities in LA County with an economic development element grew from 38 to 61.

The results are, therefore, impressive but hardly surprising – The net business migration out of LA County showed down to nearly a third of what it was in 2010, and the number of business establishments grew rapidly from over 415,000 in 2010 to nearly 420,000 in 2014.

Apart from the 335,000 jobs that were created, other factors that improved the quality of life in LA County include an 80 percent reduction in the number of unhealthy air days, and a 15 percent improvement in beach water quality.

The report cites concern about the still unacceptably high poverty rate in LA County at 17.8 percent, with more than 1.7 million people living in poverty and further wage decreases among low-wage earners.

They also mention the elimination of redevelopment agencies and enterprise zones, which has forced local governments to look at their own real estate portfolios to facilitate economic development priorities in key industries and streamline the permitting processes involved.

This is the original 2010-2014 Los Angeles County Strategic Plan for Economic Development, and this is the progress report. The 2016-2020 plan is currently in the works, being developed through a collaborative and consensus-driven approach.

Rhode Island Leaders Pitch $1.1B RhodeWorks Plan as Economic Development Investment

Rhode Island has a new plan for a huge transportation infrastructure investment to fix more than 150 structurally deficient bridges and make repairs to another 500 bridges.


RhodeWorks (photo –

The $1.1 billion RhodeWorks plan is being portrayed as a necessary investment for Rhode Island economic development.

RhodeWorks is expected to create an estimated 12,000 job-years over the duration of the 10-year plan, and will make Rhode Island a more attractive place for businesses to invest.

The $1.1 billion is in addition to current plans in transportation infrastructure over the next decade. This represents a 30 percent increase in funding over the state’s current infrastructure capital plan, bringing the total 10-year spend to $4.8 billion.

The problem is that Rhode Island currently ranks dead last (50th out of 50 states) in terms of overall bridge condition. To be specific, only 78 percent of the 1,162 bridges in Rhode Island are structurally sufficient now. RIDOT projections furthermore show that under the current capital spending plan, the state would end up with 61 percent structurally sufficient bridges by 2024.

By addressing the problem now through RhodeWorks, the state will have 90 percent structurally sufficient bridges by 2024. It also saves RI taxpayers about $1 billion, while making transit and transportation safer.

The bulk of the funding for the $1.1 billion RhodeWorks plan will come from a $700 million proposed revenue bond that will be paid off through a user fee assessed electronically on large commercial vehicles. This fee is expected to generate about $100 million annually.

The revenue generated by the fee is exclusively devoted to transportation infrastructure, and RIDOT is forbidden from collecting this user fee from motorcycles, cars, pickups, SUVs and small commercial vehicles.

The remaining $400 million required for the RhodeWorks plan will come from federal New Starts funds for public transit. The plan includes a proposal for construction of an express bus lane as part of the 6/10 interchange reconstruction.

RI House Speaker Nicholas A. Mattiello said in a release announcing the plan that this proposal by Governor Raimondo is an investment in economic development, while getting people to work in the construction trades.

Speaker Mattiello added that being ranked at the bottom of states with deficient bridges is a disincentive to businesses looking to locate in Rhode Island. Senate President M. Teresa Paiva Weed likewise noted that investment in transportation infrastructure is vital to Rhode Island’s economic wellbeing.

Greater Providence Chamber of Commerce President Laurie White added that highway accessibility was ranked as the most important factor to U.S. corporate site selectors in a survey by Area Development magazine. White added that states and communities that make investments in existing road infrastructure and increasing it will be in better shape for economic development.

Volkswagen Chattanooga Expansion Impact on Tennessee Economic Development – 9800 Jobs, $373M Income

A new study on the impact of the Volkswagen manufacturing facility’s expansion in Chattanooga, TN shows that the project will lead to the creation of 9,799 new full-time equivalent permanent jobs in Tennessee.

Volkswagen Chattanooga expansion impact study

Volkswagen Chattanooga expansion impact study (photo –

The study, prepared by the Center for Business & Economic Research at the University of Tennessee Knoxville, looks at the expansion’s impact on Chattanooga economic development as well as the impact on Volkswagen’s suppliers across the state, and the resultant impact on the broader economy in Tennessee.

In July last year, Volkswagen announced that it will add an additional manufacturing line in Chattanooga for a midsize SUV for the American market, and also establish the National R&D and Planning Center of Volkswagen Group of America.

As part of this expansion, the company is investing $704.4 million and creating 1,800 manufacturing jobs and another 200 engineering jobs at what is being billed as the first automotive R&D center located in the southeast. The Volkswagen facility already employs 2,358 employees, so the expansion almost doubles the workforce.

Highlights from the CBER study on the impact of the Volkswagen expansion:

- The construction and development phase will create 5,391 full time equivalent jobs for a year, and will generate $217 million in new income in the state, providing state and local governments with a one-time increase in tax revenues of up to $20.5 million;

- In the operations phase, the Volkswagen plant expansion and R&D center will create a combined 9,799 new full time equivalent permanent jobs in Tennessee, generating $372.6 million in new annual income, and $35.1 million of new annual tax revenue.

CBER Director Bill Fox, who authored the study, said in a release that some of these new jobs will be with Volkswagen suppliers, while others will be associated with the multiplier effect. These indirect and induced jobs will be in industries ranging from grocery stores and restaurants to shopping malls and construction.

This economic impact is for the expansion, in addition to the impact outlined in an earlier CBER study that looked at Volkswagen’s existing assembly plant operations. That study showed that Volkswagen Chattanooga operations have resulted in the creation of 12,400 full time equivalent jobs in Tennessee, along with $643.1 million in annual income, and an increase in state and local tax revenues of $53.5 million.

Not to mention the positive impact on Chattanooga economic development in terms of helping attract new companies. This impact is enhanced by the fact that the Volkswagen Academy is the world’s first and only LEED Platinum certified auto plant.

Read the full Volkswagen Chattanooga impact study from CBER.

Michigan House Committee Hearing on Bills to Divert Economic Development Funding for Roads

A new Michigan House Committee on Roads and Economic Development is scheduled to hold a hearing and hear testimony on some high-profile bills that are opposed by economic development and business groups in the state.

Pure Michigan

Pure Michigan (photo – PunkToad/flickr)

The bills (HB 4607 and HB 4608) seek to divert $135 million in funding that is currently allocated to the 21st Century Jobs Fund and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation.

The MI House Committee on Roads and Economic Development was created earlier this month as part of an effort to assist a 12-bill road funding plan introduced by Speaker of the House Kevin Cotter.

At that time, Speaker Cotter said in a release that “Finding a long-term plan for Michigan’s crumbling roads is one of our top priorities, and it is time the committee makeup of the Legislature reflected that.”

Speaker Cotter added that creating this committee allows them to come together and work quickly on a solution that fixes roads, sets the stage for continued economic growth and gets Michigan moving again.

But the two aforementioned bills divert funding from vitally important economic development programs like the Jobs for Michigan Investment Fund, brownfield and historic preservation tax credits, business accelerators, incubators, and the Pure Michigan campaign, whose funding would be entirely eliminated.

HB 4607, sponsored by State Rep. Phil Pettalia, would amend the Michigan Trust Fund Act to allocate $75 million from tobacco settlement revenue to the Michigan Transportation Fund. Since FY 2011-12, this $75 million has been typically distributed among three programs, as detailed below:

- Business Attraction and Community Revitalization (FY 2014-15 appropriation – $28.8 million);

- Entrepreneurship Eco-System (FY 2014-15 appropriation – $17.2 million); and

- Pure Michigan (FY 2014-15 appropriation – $29.0 million);

Note that this doesn’t necessarily mean that Michigan will have to eliminate these programs. But the MEDC and other organizations that run these programs may have to find other means of funding to pay for it.

HB 4608, sponsored by State Rep. Lee Chatfield, would amend the Michigan Strategic Fund Act to divert $60 million, mainly from Indian Gaming revenues, into the Michigan Transportation Fund.

These revenues currently flow directly from the casinos to the MEDC under various Gaming Compacts. The casino revenues are the source for the Jobs for Michigan Investment Fund, and it’s not subject to the legislative appropriations process.

Steve Arwood, director of the new Michigan Department of Talent and Economic Development, which houses both the MEDC and the Pure Michigan campaign, is one of those who will be providing testimony at the House Committee on Roads and Economic Development hearing.

Memorial Day Economic Development Initiatives for Veterans

Every year, a whole bunch of new economic development programs that aim to assist veterans are announced on or just before Memorial Day. Here’s a summary of the major programs announced or launched this year.

Vet Center

Vet Center (photo – elizaIO/flickr)

The biggest announcement was from Walmart, if only for the stunning scope of their hiring spree. Walmart upped its projections for hiring veterans from 100,000 by 2018 to 250,000 by the end of 2020.

Walmart furthermore expanded the scope of its Veterans Welcome Home Commitment to guarantee a job offer for any eligible U.S. veteran honorably discharged from active duty since the program was first launched on Memorial Day 2013.

Since then, Walmart has hired more than 92,000 veterans, and the company also announced that nearly 8,000 of these hired veterans have since been promoted to jobs with greater responsibilities and higher pay.

Retired Brigadier General Gary Profit, who is senior director of military programs at Walmart, said in a release that they believe veterans represent the largest, diverse, talent-rich pool in the world and are an essential segment of the next generation at Walmart.

Not to be left behind, Secretary of Veterans Affairs Robert A. McDonald announced the launch of a 50-city public-private initiative called the Veterans Economic Communities Initiative (VECI). This program is being launched in 50 U.S. cities to promote economic success for veterans as a part of MyVA.

Apart from VA and other federal agencies (DOD, DOL, and SBA), partners involved in the project include the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, corporate employers and leaders of local and national veterans organizations.

As part of this program, a VA economic liaison will be working in each community to expand and encourage collaboration among private and public organizations offering veterans resources related to education, training and employment.

In a release announcing the program, Sec. McDonald said that the best way to get things done for Veterans is to involve partners from both the public and private sectors – national to local.

In Rhode Island, Governor Gina M. Raimondo and members of the Rhode Island General Assembly helped veterans break ground on a new 208-bed Rhode Island Veterans Home in Bristol. The project, for which the state’s voters have approved a $94 million bond, is expected to create more than 400 construction jobs while the Veterans Home is being built over the next two years.

The Ohio Legislature is considering an economic development bill (HB 102) that will give veteran-owned businesses an edge ($5,000 or five percent) in competing for state contracts.

In Wisconsin, State Rep. Diane Hesselbein and State Sen. Julie Lassa, a member of the Wisconsin Senate Committee on Economic Development and Veterans Affairs, have introduced a number of bills that increase the benefits available to veterans.

In Delaware, Governor Jack Markell unveiled a plan to identify veterans who are currently homeless or at a high risk of homelessness. The plan improves coordination between veteran services providers and general homelessness prevention programs, and also creates rental assistance vouchers dedicated to veterans.

Minnesota Economic Development Workers Face Layoff Over Jobs Bill

Governor Mark Dayton’s veto of a jobs and energy bill has raised the possibility that Minnesota’s non-essential economic development workers could be asked to stay home if an agreement is not reached soon.

Minnesota State Capitol

Minnesota State Capitol (photo – Jonathunder/wikimedia)

Over the weekend, the Governor vetoed Chapter 80, HF 1437. This is an omnibus jobs and energy bill that appropriates money for state agencies involved with Minnesota economic development, workforce development, labor and industry, commerce, housing, and energy.

The bill was sent to the Governor for his signature after passing the Minnesota House 75-9 and the Senate by 34-29.

In his veto letter, Gov. Dayton explains that he vetoed the bill because it insufficiently funds the Department of Commerce, and says the Broadband Funding in the bill is seriously inadequate. The Governor also notes that the bill falls short in funding programs that advance Minnesota’s Olmstead Plan.

“I was disappointed that this bill did not include more funding for the Department of Employment and Economic Development and the Minnesota Housing Finance Agency to carry out their responsibilities under Minnesota’s Olmstead Plan,” said Gov. Dayton in the veto letter.

The Minnesota Office of Broadband Development (OBD) is tasked with administering the Border-to-Border Broadband Development Grant program. The OBD got $20 million for the current biennium for making investments in broadband infrastructure. This funding has been committed to 17 projects that were selected out of 40 applications.

For the next biennium, the omnibus funding bill that got vetoed provides barely half this amount, and furthermore earmarks $2 million for a specific broadband project. The Governor says in the letter that this undermines the program’s competitive application process, and sets a dangerous precedent.

Minnesota House Speaker Kurt Daudt issued a response statement in which he says that “The governor, the DFL-led Senate and the Republican-led House have had five months to get our work done for Minnesotans. While the Senate and House completed ours on time and in a bipartisan fashion, the governor wants more time. We will continue to work with him for Minnesotans.”

Gov. Dayton will now call the Minnesota Legislature for a special session in which state lawmakers will have to come up with an agreement on legislation to replace the vetoed environment, education and economic development bills.

If there is no agreement on the budget measures before June 1, layoff alerts will be sent to more than 10,000 state employees. A month later on July 1, when the state’s new two-year budget is set to begin, non-essential staff at state agencies involved in education, economic development and the environment will not be able to work.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136  Scroll to top