Fitchburg State Univ. EDI Forum on Broadband Availability and Usage

The Regional Economic Development Institute (REDI) at Fitchburg State University held a public research forum in Fitchburg, Massachusetts on Monday where researchers presented their findings in a study on broadband usage and availability.

Broadband for small business

Broadband for small business (photo – house.gov)

The report was completed by REDI faculty researchers Jane Zhang and Beverly Hollingsworth and includes a survey of broadband access across 20 cities and towns in North Central Massachusetts.

REDI completed the research project with the help of the Massachusetts Broadband Institute (MBI), which is currently working on a $40 million statewide project to improve broadband service to its cities and towns.

MBI has a stated goal of providing broadband access to 98 percent of statewide businesses and residents in Massachusetts. It seems they have a long road ahead, because the REDI study found that only 46 percent of businesses in the survey region were using high-speed broadband internet.

The survey team collected 380 responses via telephone surveys, with 90 percent of the respondents being private businesses. Seven percent were government organizations and agencies, and the remaining three percent were non-profits.

A full 11 percent said they do not use internet at all. Another 18 percent of the respondents said they used slower DSL connections, while 25 percent responded with “other.” Residential users were not included in the survey, and wireless was also not factored in.

What’s disheartening is that apart from the 46 percent who already use broadband for business purposes, the rest don’t seem to even want it.  A full 41 percent said they had no interest in cable internet, while another eight percent said it “depends.” Only five percent said they would like to be able to use broadband.

Even so, the REDI report’s conclusion was optimistic – “The desire for high speed internet clearly points to the fact that demand for cable will likely rise as broadband users realize its effectiveness in business. As small and medium size businesses grow, the demand for broadband will potentially move in a direct relationship with business growth.”

“This REDI study shows that the availability of broadband to the targeted areas of North Central Massachusetts is significant to the region’s economic sectors, especially for potentially aiding employment, improving business growth, and advancing economic development,” said Joshua Spero, REDI director and a member of the university’s Economics, History and Political Science faculty.

Read the full REDI report – Download (pdf, 13.7 mb)

Eli Lilly to Invest $140M for Indianapolis Expansion

Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) announced a $140 million expansion to the company’s Indianapolis, Indiana insulin manufacturing operations.

Eli Lilly and Company

Photo – Eli Lilly and Company

The expansion will require around 250 construction jobs on average, with peak construction employment at approximately 350 workers at the site.

Once operational in 2015, more than 100 full-time jobs will be created. Expected average wages for these jobs were not disclosed, but the company did say that they would all be positions for highly skilled, specialized technicians, scientists, and engineers needed to manage the operations.

The 80,000-square-foot expansion represents one of the most significant investments in Lilly’s U.S.-based manufacturing operations in the past decade. The new facility will manufacture insulin cartridges for people with diabetes. It will be a first-of-its-kind facility for Lilly in the U.S.

Lilly chairman, president, and CEO John C. Lechleiter, Ph.D., said that Lilly’s role as a biomedical leader in Indiana drove the company’s decision to build this state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Indianapolis.

“Lilly is committed to providing a full range of innovative treatment options for people with diabetes,” said Lechleiter. “The need in our country is great ‚Äî and it is growing. This investment will help us to better meet that need while expanding our advanced manufacturing footprint in our home state ‚Äî helping to strengthen Indiana’s bioscience industry.”

Lilly’s $140 million outlay is among the largest capital investments in made in Indianapolis this year.

“Lilly’s expansion brings new jobs and investment of new capital to our local economy, demonstrating the company’s confidence in doing business in Indianapolis and strengthening our advanced manufacturing and bioscience industries,” said Indianapolis Mayor Greg Ballard.

“This expansion is just further proof that Indiana is a fiscally strong state, and we thank Lilly for their confidence in our state and our people,” said Indiana Lt. Governor Becky Skillman.

Construction of the new facility will begin immediately, with completion expected in March 2014.

The Indianapolis -based Eli Lilly and Company was the first company to mass-produce penicillin and one of the early producers of human insulin. Today, the company has 38,350 employees across facilities and offices in 17 countries. Last year, Lilly generated revenues worth $24.28 billion and a net income of $4.34 billion.

Schumer Steps In to Defend EDA Grant for Pepsico Yogurt Project

When U.S. Senator Tom Coburn (R-OK) released his list of “Wastebook” projects for 2012, he probably expected a little blowback. Many of the funded projects on the list certainly deserve to be ridiculed.

Pepsico Muller Quaker yogurt

Pepsico Muller Quaker yogurt (photo – Pepsico)

But listing the $1.3 million U.S. Economic Development Administration (EDA) grant for infrastructure improvements at the Genesee Valley Agri-Business Park (GVAB) in Batavia, New York was probably a bit of an overreach.

U.S. Senator Chuck Schumer (D-NY), who championed the grant in order to facilitate the Pepsico yogurt plant and create 186 jobs, immediately piled on to defend the grant, and quite effectively too.

“One of the primary roles of the federal government is to responsibly invest in public infrastructure that bolsters economic growth in local communities, leverages private investment, and puts more Americans back to work,” said Schumer. “When the Economic Development Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture invested about $1.3 million to build an access road and improve the water supply at Batavia’s Genesee Valley Agri-Business Part, an out-of-state lawmaker failed to recognize the value in the hundreds of new workers at the site who will use these vital improvements to boost the local economy and support the region’s hard-working family dairy farms. This modest but critical federal investment in essential infrastructure creates a more fertile environment for a rapidly growing industry and related agricultural ventures to take root and grow in an economically stressed region of our state. It allows a wide range of food and yogurt producers – which create jobs and support the local tax base — to flourish in Batavia and beyond.”

“All told, this funding will help create a regional cluster of over a dozen businesses focused on food and Greek yogurt production; clusters are widely recognized as one of the most productive models for economic development,” added Schumer.

Sen. Coburn’s Wastebook lists the grant (scroll down to No. 24) as “Corporate welfare for the world’s largest snack food maker РA business park in New York received federal funds to make a road for a Pepsico yogurt factory.”

Sen. Schumer took exception to this too, and explained that Pepisco was not a recipient. The $1.3 million includes three separate grants. A $1 million grant was awarded to Genesee Gateway Local Development Corporation (GGLDC), which runs the agri-business park.

This $1 million helped make the needed improvements that landed the state and GVAB a $206 million investment in the form of the Pepsi’s Muller Quaker yogurt plant, which created 186 jobs and brought a number of smaller companies along to the GVAB. This was the largest manufacturing operation to locate in Genesee County in the past 50 years.

All told, the infrastructure improvements facilitated by the EDA grant have attracted an additional 10 companies to expand or relocate to New York and set up plants in the GVAB. In addition to the $1 million EDA grant, the USDA provided a $199,921 grant to Genesee County. The third grant was also a USDA grant to the town of Batavia.

UTSA Study – Eagle Ford Shale Supports 38,000 Jobs in South Texas

The Center for Community and Business Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio Institute for Economic Development (UTSA) has published a new report on the economic impact of the Eagle Ford Shale drilling and production activities.

As per the UTSA report, Eagle Ford Shale has produced the following impact on the 14-county region:-

UTSA Study - TX economic impact of Eagle Ford Shale

TX economic impact of Eagle Ford Shale (photo – UTSA)

-          More than $19.2 billion in output

-          Approximately $10.5 billion in gross regional product

-          $211 million in local government revenues

-          $312 million in state revenues

-          38,000 full-time jobs

By 2021, the study predicts that Eagle Ford Shale could produce $62.1 billion in output, support 82,600 full-time jobs, $34.0 billion in gross regional product, and bring in around $888 million in local government revenues and $1.6 billion in state revenues.

Between the fourth quarters of 2009 and 2011, aggregate employment across all 14 counties increased by 14,237 jobs, a 9.2 percent increase. This growth is more than double the 4.3 percent employment growth for the state during the same period.

Another indicator of the benefits from the Eagle Ford Shale is the amount of sales taxes collected. The 14-county area’s total sales subject to sales tax in the fourth quarter of 2009 were $861.0 million with an increase to $1,230.7 million by the end of the fourth quarter of 2011, an increase of 42.9 percent.

This is almost double the 21.7 percent change in sales tax collection for the state during the same period.

The economic impacts are mostly driven by drilling and production activities and, in some cases, like with Live Oak and Gonzales counties, refinery output plays an important role.

The importance of the shale for economic development in the region is also underlined by the high wages paid by the oil and gas industry when compared to others. In 2011, the mining, quarrying, oil and gas extraction sector wage in Texas, on average, was $67,943 – well above the state average wage of $43,090. The industry now ranks among the top three highest paying sectors in Texas.

“The Eagle Ford Shale may be one of the largest onshore natural gas and oil discoveries in the past half century,” said Dominique Halaby, the center’s director. “In 2010 alone, this newest of the Texas shale plays generated close to $2.9 billion in revenue, supported approximately 12,600 full-time jobs in the area, and provided nearly $47.6 million in local government revenue.”

The report also notes that the Eagle Ford Shale development in Texas will progress in distinct phases, which will require different labor needs and workforce training.

The exploration phase needs more labor in fields such as construction, material transport, drilling rig operation support staff, mineral leasing, etc. Afterwards, during the production and processing phase, the labor demand shifts towards administrative and managerial needs, with support for refining operations to produce oil and gas.

Read the full Eagle Ford Shale economic impact report – Download (pdf)

Honda Rings In 30 Years of U.S. Manufacturing with $200M Ohio Investment

When the first silver-gray Honda Accord rolled off the assembly line at the Marysville, Ohio plant in 1982, it was the first ever car made in America by a Japanese automaker.

First Honda Accord made in America on display at Henry Ford Museum

First Honda Accord made in America on display at Henry Ford Museum (Photo – Michael Barera/wikipedia)

So perhaps it was fitting that when Honda reached the sterling milestone of 30 years of making automobiles in U.S. manufacturing facilities, they capped the milestone by announcing a new $200 million investment in Ohio.

The new investments at the Russells Point, OH and Anna, OH plants will create 200 new jobs.

It also brings Honda’s investment in its U.S. manufacturing plants in the last two years to $1.2 billion. Their total investment in America to date has now reached $12.5 billion.

“For 30 years, Honda associates in our U.S. auto plants have challenged themselves and set high standards to create products that meet the needs of our customers here and in markets around the world,” said Tetsuo Iwamura, president and CEO of American Honda Motor Co., Inc., and COO of North American Regional Operations. “We continue to invest in our associates, helping to keep our operations in America on the leading edge of quality, efficiency and flexibility.”

Honda today employs more than 26,000 associates and operates nine major manufacturing plants and 15 R&D facilities in the U.S., including four auto plants with an annual capacity of 1.08 million Honda and Acura vehicles.

Rick Schostek, senior vice president, Honda of America Mfg., Inc., said that their operations had matured enough that Honda U.S. will begin to “take on a larger role within global Honda to meet the needs of customers around the world.”

As part of this new global lead role, Honda will increase exports from North America to global markets. Honda also is increasing its export of major auto parts by almost 70 percent this year in support of Honda plants in South America, Europe and Asia.

More than $700 million of the $2 billion U.S. investment in the last two years has been made by Honda at plants in Ohio.

In addition to this, Honda also works with approximately 500 U.S. OEM parts and materials suppliers, and purchased $14.4 billion in OEM parts and materials from U.S. suppliers in 2011. They have more than 600 parts suppliers in North America, with purchases expected to exceed $20 billion this year.

Agencies Scramble to Provide NYC Housing Assistance

NYC Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg said that the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) had told him they would have to find new homes for 40,000 people left homeless in New York by Hurricane Sandy.

Hurricane Sandy

Hurricane Sandy (photo – jaydensonbx/flickr)

Local, state and federal agencies are scrambling to provide emergency housing and help home owners rebuild or buy new homes.

Local community development corporations (CDCs) such as the Long Island CDC have stepped in with emergency home loan repair and improvement loans of up to $25,000.

“CDC is available to assist income-eligible Long Islanders with emergency home repair loans,” said Eileen Anderson, senior vice president of the Long island CDC. “There is a lot of misinformation out there right now. This issue, coupled with the trauma people are experiencing in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, can result in poor decision making.”

The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is offering disaster loans up to $200,000 to homeowners to repair or replace disaster damaged or destroyed real estate. Homeowners and renters are eligible up to $40,000 to repair or replace disaster damaged or destroyed personal property.

Businesses and private non-profit organizations of any size may borrow up to $2 million to repair or replace disaster damaged or destroyed real estate, machinery and equipment, inventory, and other business assets.

Interest rates are as low as 1.688 percent for homeowners and renters, three percent for non-profit organizations and four percent for businesses with terms up to 30 years.

‘“The U.S. Small Business Administration is strongly committed to providing the people of New York with the most effective and customer-focused response possible to assist homeowners, renters, and businesses with federal disaster loans,” said SBA administrator Karen G. Mills. “Getting businesses and communities up and running after a disaster is our highest priority at SBA.”

Meanwhile, New York Governor Andrew M. Cuomo has issued a waiver for hurricane deductibles on insurance claims stemming from damage caused by Hurricane Sandy. Ironically enough, this was made possible because Sandy was not really a full-blown hurricane when it hit New York.

Many homeowners’ insurance policies for homes contain hurricane deductibles that range from one to five percent of a home’s insured value. So for example, with a five percent deductible on a home insured for $300,000, the homeowner would have to pay for the first $15,000 of damage.

Benjamin M. Lawsky, superintendent of the New York State Dept. of Financial Services, said, “We have informed the insurance industry that hurricane deductibles are not triggered because Sandy did not have sustained hurricane-force winds when it made land in New York. We will be working with insurers to help them respond as quickly as possible to homeowners who need to file claims. And we will be sending our mobile command center to hard hit areas to help consumers with insurance questions and problems.”

Homeowners unable to resolve disputes with insurers can file complaints at dfs.ny.gov.

LAEDC Report – Economic Impact of Pacific Standard Time

The Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation (LAEDC) has published an economic impact analysis report for the Pacific Standard Time art exhibit staged by 60 cultural institutions and more than 70 galleries across Southern California between October 2011 and March 2012.

LAEDC report - Pacific Standard Time economic impact

LAEDC report – Pacific Standard Time economic impact (photo – getty.edu)

The report, commissioned by the J. Paul Getty Trust and funded by Bank of America, found that the combined activity related to “Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A. 1945—1980” during the six month program period generated $280.5 million in economic output in Southern California.

In addition to exhibitions hosted by cultural institutions, dozens of local galleries and several art fairs (such as the art fair hosted by Art Platform) piggy-backed on the exposure generated for PST and debuted their own exhibitions and sales.

All put together, PST supported 2,490 jobs with total labor income of $101.3 million. This activity is estimated to have added $19.4 million in tax revenues for state and local governments across a six county region.

An estimated 1.8 million visitors participated at exhibitions across the region. The majority of visitors came from within California, with about 78 percent originating from Southern California. Approximately 13 percent of visitors came from states other than California, and 3.4 percent traveled from outside the United States.

The center of activity was Los Angeles County. Out of a total of 60 participating cultural institutions, more than 40 were in Los Angeles County. Among the largest institutions were the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Norton Simon Museum.

In Los Angeles County, PST supported 2,130 jobs with total labor income of $88.5 million. The total output impact in the county is estimated to have been $234.8 million. This activity is estimated to have generated $15.5 million in state and local tax revenues.

Outside Los Angeles County, the program supported 370 jobs with total labor income of $12.8 million. The total output impact excluding Los Angeles County is estimated to have been $45.7 million. This activity is estimated to have generated $4.0 million in state and local tax revenues.

Pacific Standard Time was first initiated by the Getty Foundation and the Getty Research Institute in 2002, as a collaborative effort to preserve the archival record of the milestones in this region’s artistic history. By the time they got the project open last year, the Getty Foundation had already sunk $10 million on it.

Pacific Standard Time brings to light the dynamic history of art in Los Angeles from the post-World War II era through the turbulent 1960s and 1970s.

“The record of decades of artistic innovation was for too long scattered in storerooms and files all over Southern California, difficult to access and in some cases in danger of being lost or destroyed,” said Deborah Marrow, director of the Getty Foundation. “Through Pacific Standard Time, the region’s enormously creative history has been preserved and re-examined, narrative by narrative.”

‚ÄúLos Angeles is the creative epicenter of the world, and we believe that supporting the arts contributes to a climate where innovation flourishes, economies grow, and people, businesses and communities thrive,” said Janet Lamkin, president, Bank of America California.

Read the full “Pacific Standard Time” economic impact report – Download (pdf)

North Carolina Tops Site Selection Best Business Climate Rankings

North Carolina has displaced Texas as the state with the best business climate. This according to Site Selection magazine, which published the list of top state business climate rankings in their November issue.

The list is topped by North Carolina, followed by Ohio which jumped up to second place from their ninth rank last year. Texas dropped down two slots to number three, with Georgia and Virginia making up the top five.

Here’s the list of the top 10 states with the best business climate, as per Site Selection.

  1. Site Selection Best Business Climate

    Site Selection Best Business Climate (photo – Site Selection/thrivenc.com)

    North Carolina

  2. Ohio
  3. Texas
  4. Georgia
  5. Virginia
  6. Alabama
  7. Louisiana
  8. Tennessee
  9. South Carolina
  10. Florida

“All states face economic and budgetary challenges these days, but this ranking reminds us that there are significant success stories, too,” said Site Selection editor in chief Mark Arend. “North Carolina’s first-place finish underscores its success across a wide spectrum of industries, from aerospace to life sciences to energy. We commend the governor and her economic development team for their focus on making and keeping their state business-friendly.”

The rankings are based 50 percent on survey responses provided by corporate site selectors. The other fifty percent was based on five criteria, including new plant investments and ranking on Site Selection‚Äôs previously published Governor’s Cup and Competitiveness Ranking lists. The remaining two criteria are the Tax Foundation and KPMG’s Location Matters analysis of state tax burdens on mature firms and on new firms.

Ohio and Virginia had an advantage having topped the Governor’s Cup ranking and Competitive Ranking lists respectively. Site Selectors overwhelmingly named Texas as the top state for the best business climate, with North Carolina coming second for this factor. North Carolina did well enough in the other categories to take home the top ranking once again – their 10th top slot on this list in the last 12 years.

“North Carolina is a great place to do business and a place where companies and their employees can thrive,” said Gov. Perdue in a statement. “We have a long history of making critical investments in education and customized training programs to build the workforce of tomorrow. We have a low cost of doing business, we encourage innovation.”

CF Industries Announces $3.8 Billion Expansions in Iowa, Louisiana

CF Industries Holdings, Inc. (NYSE:CF) announced that CF Industries’ board of directors has authorized expenditure of $3.8 billion for expansions of their fertilizer facilities in Donaldsonville, Louisiana, and Port Neal, Iowa.

CF Industries

Photo – CF Industries

The Donaldsonville project budget is $2.1 billion, and the Port Neal project budget is $1.7 billion.

“We are pleased to announce definitive, large-scale nitrogen capacity expansion plans at our North American operations focused on substantially increasing our ability to serve our customers,” said Stephen R. Wilson, chairman and chief executive officer, CF Industries Holdings, Inc. “We believe that our projects will be among the first in North America to be in production. We already own suitable sites, have retained a world-class engineering partner and have completed the front end engineering and design study for key components of the projects.”

The $1.7 billion investment in Port Neal is the single largest capital investment in Iowa’s history. The Port Neal project will create 100 new permanent jobs with an average starting annual salary of $55,000, increasing to $85,000 per year when employees become fully certified.

The Donaldsonville project will create 93 new jobs with an average annual salary of $56,500, plus benefits, while retaining 349 existing jobs and 250 contractor jobs on the Donaldsonville site.

Both projects will also create an additional 700 indirect jobs each, not to mention that both projects put together will additionally create around 3,400 construction jobs.

“Today’s project is great news for the Capital Region and our entire state because it will help our families and agriculture industry thrive,‚Äù said Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal . ‚ÄúCF Industries could have invested in another state, but they chose to expand here because of our strong business climate, abundant supply of natural gas, world-class infrastructure and incomparable workforce.‚Äù

“This is another great announcement for Iowa, and we are proud that CF Industries has chosen us for its $1.7 billion expansion,” said Iowa Governor Terry E. Branstad. “Our state is clearly well-positioned to take advantage of the growing domestic fertilizer industry. Not only does that mean significant investment that will continue to grow our economy, but also the creation of high-paying jobs for Iowans.”

The Iowa Economic Development Authority (IEDA) Board had to scramble to organize a special teleconference to come up with a blockbuster incentives package for CF Industries, Inc. The IEDA ended up offering CF Industries $1.5 million in direct cash assistance and tax credits worth $22 million, in addition to the possibility of another $48 million in tax credits over the next four years. All put together, it works out to a hefty $70 million incentives package.

The tax credit award is made up of $13 million in sales tax refunds paid during construction and $9 million in investment tax credits (ITC). In addition, the board will also consider future amendments to the award to allocate an additional $12 million in ITC in each of the next four fiscal years (FY13-FY16) for a potential total ITC award of $57 million.

To secure the Donaldsonville expansion, Louisiana Economic development (LED) offered CF Industries an incentive package that includes:-

-           a $3 million Modernization Tax Credit, payable over five years;

-¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† a performance-based, $2 million Economic Development Loan Program award that’s forgivable if the company meets payroll targets; and

-          the services of LED FastStart, the state’s workforce development training program.

In addition, the company is expected to utilize Louisiana’s Quality Jobs and Industrial Tax Exemption incentive programs.

CF Industries, Inc. has around 2,400 employees and is a subsidiary of the Deerfield, Illinois-based CF Industries Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: CF).

The company has seven nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing complexes in the central U.S. region and Canada; phosphate mining and production operations in Central Florida; and a network of fertilizer distribution terminals and warehouses, located primarily in major grain-producing states in the Midwest, including two in Iowa.

RIEDC Files Lawsuit Against Curt Schilling and Former EDC Officials

The Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation (RIEDC) has filed a lawsuit against 38 Studios founder and former Red Sox pitcher Curt Schilling. Apart from Schilling, the lawsuit names thirteen other defendants including former RIEDC executive director Keith Stokes and the RIEDC’s own lawyers who acted as legal counsel for the deal.

RI Gov. Chafee on 38 Studios lawsuit

RI Gov. Chafee video on 38 Studios lawsuit

38 Studios was a video game company that was provided a $75 million loan guarantee by the RIEDC as an incentive to relocate from Massachusetts to Providence, RI.

They spent the loan money and more borrowed funds trying to make the video game, but ended up laying off hundreds of workers before filing for bankruptcy.

The state of Rhode Island was left holding an unfinished finished game and a huge unpaid loan. This led to RIEDC executive director Keith Stokes and others to resign. Curt Schilling blamed the Governor for denying the company film tax credits and eroding confidence in the company with public statements that pulled the rug out from under financing deals 38 Studios was negotiating.

Many state and federal agencies, including the FBI, were investigating actions taken by the company and its officials leading up to the layoffs and bankruptcy. The company’s headquarters was recently auctioned by the RIEDC, and that brought in a gross $650,000.

A recent RIPEC study ordered by RI Gov. Lincoln Chafee recommended complete restructuring of the agency and turning the quasi-public agency into a state agency as part of a larger Office of Commerce in the Governor’s Office.

The lawsuit now filed by the RIEDC in the Rhode Island Superior Court throws the book at everyone involved, from Wells Fargo Securities which it claims received a $500,000 hidden commission to the lawyers, the EDC board and Stokes for not doing their fiduciary duties to assess whether the company could complete the game it was making.

Gov. Chafee put out a video statement along with a copy of the complaint filed in the court.

In the statement, Gov. Chafee says that with the goal of minimizing loss of taxpayer dollars, ‚Äúwe engaged Max Wistow, a seasoned attorney with decades of experience in complex litigation matters, including financial restitution and settlements. Over the past four months, Mr. Wistow and his team have thoroughly examined the 38 Studios situation and the state’s position. In executive session of the Economic Development Corporation Board, we received an extensive briefing from Mr. Wistow on his findings. In that meeting, the Board voted without opposition to authorize legal action.‚Äù

A lawsuit against Curt Schilling and other 38 Studios executives was to be expected. But it might have been a bit of an overreach to haul so many of the EDC’s own people to court. It sends the wrong message that if an economic development project in Rhode Island goes wrong, then agency officials and consultants may literally have to pay for it out of pocket.

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